Surgical sperm retrieval, also known as testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and
microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE), are procedures used to
retrieve sperm directly from the testicles or epididymis of men who have a low sperm count or no sperm in their ejaculate.

The procedure is typically performed under local or general anesthesia and involves making a small incision in the scrotum to access the testicles or epididymis.
Depending on the technique used, the surgeon may use a microscope to locate and remove individual sperm or remove a larger sample of seminiferous tubules from which sperms can be extracted.

Surgical sperm retrieval is typically used in cases where other methods of sperm retrieval, such as ejaculation or sperm aspiration, have not been successful. The
retrieved sperm can be used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to help couples conceive a child. It is important to note, however, that the success rate of IVF with surgically retrieved sperm can vary depending on the underlying cause of the male infertility.